Where the wind blows

Key word: Icebreaker, energizer

Description: Place chairs in a circle facing each other. Leave one seat fewer than the number of people in the group. This game can also be played standing up, using tape to mark the ground where each player would stand. Have one volunteer stand in the middle of the circle. Everyone else sits in their seats (or stands on a piece of tape). Beginning their statement with “the wind blows to anyone who…” the volunteer shares something about themselves. It can be a unique fact, life experience, quality or something about their appearance, which would also apply to others in the group. For example, “the wind blows to anyone who has a pet cat”, the volunteer and everyone else who identifies with this statement (in this case, everyone who has a pet cat) is asked to scramble and find a new spot in the circle. The person left standing without an assigned spot goes to the middle of the circle and is asked to continue with another statement.

The game continues until everyone has had a chance to say something. Upon completion, you could take it one step further: ask participants if any discoveries surprised them? Was it easy to share things about yourself? Why? How can we create an atmosphere that makes it easy to share thoughts, talents and experiences with each other?

Purpose: This game is great as an energizer to get everyone moving and laughing together. It allows the group to learn about each other.

Time: 10 to 20 minutes (flexible)

Number of Participants: Four (4) or more

Materials needed: Masking tape or chairs

Space requirements: A space without obstructions, to allow for safe movement within the circle.

Considerations: This is a fairly active game requiring participants to move quickly from place to place. It is not an ideal game for someone with mobility issues.


Points of contact

Key words: Team building, icebreaker, energizer

Description: Break into groups and give each group a number. Each group must arrange themselves so that the number given matches the number of points of contact between them and the floor. For example, if the number is three and there are four people in the group, then one person must not touch the floor, while the other three stand on one leg, leaving only three points of contact with the floor.

Purpose: This is a team building exercise that gets people working together and is great for boosting group energy.

Time: 10-20 minutes

Number of participants: Four (4) or more

Materials required: None

Space: Fairly large open space

Considerations: This game is not suitable for participants with serious mobility issues. Additionally, this game requires participants to touch each other; therefore they should be comfortable being in close proximity with other people. Participants should give consent to being touched before starting the game.


Bodies, item, word

Key word: Team building

Description: Each group is tasked with choosing a word or item. As a group, they are asked to personify this word or item with their bodies. Each group will present their choice, while the other groups try to identify/guess the word or item.

Purpose: This is a team building activity that allows participants to work collaboratively together while exercising their creativity and moving their bodies. This activity works great as an energizer and can be used as a break from more quiet and inactive activities.

Time: 10-20 minutes or longer

Number of participants: Four (4) or more

Materials required: None

Space: An open space with plenty of room to move around

Considerations: This game is not suitable for participants with serious mobility issues. Additionally, this game requires participants to touch each other; therefore they should be comfortable being in close proximity with other people. Participants should give consent to being touched before starting the game.


Desert island

Key word: Icebreaker

Description: Instruct the group to imagine they are stranded on a desert island with no hope of rescue and they can only bring three items. Give participants time to think of which items they would bring. One by one, ask participants to introduce themselves and share their items.

Purpose: This activity can be used as an icebreaker. As participants share what they would like to bring, the group learns a little bit about the likes, dislikes and personality of each person.

Time: 15-30 minutes

Number of participants: Four (4) or more

Materials required: None

Space: A space in which participants can see each other. Either sitting in a circle, one at or more table(s) works.

Considerations: None


Toilet paper activity

Key word: Team building

Description: Pass around a roll of toilet paper, asking each participant to take enough to last them two days if stranded on an island. Once all participants have taken their paper, inform them that they now have to say one thing they like about themselves for each square of toilet paper they took.

Purpose: Play this activity with a group that is already comfortable with each other. This activity is great for building confidence and allowing participants to share positive perspectives and self esteem with one another. This is a positivity boosting exercise!

Time: 10-20 minutes, more depending on number of participants

Number of participants: Three (3) or more

Materials required: a couple rolls of toilet paper

Space: Enough space so that everyone can sit comfortably in a circle or around a table without any large objects obstructing the line of vision between participants.

Considerations: It may be useful to have someone present who can act as emotional support to any participants who might need it while playing this game. Make sure to announce the presence of emotional support persons prior to initiating the game/ gathering.


Who am I?

Key word: Icebreaker

Description: On a small piece of paper, ask each participant to write a famous character (fictional or non-fictional) from a television show, movie, sports team, politics, cartoon, etc. Collect the papers, and using tape, randomly place a character on participants’ backs. Ask them to move around the room asking others YES or NO questions that would help identify the character they have stuck on their backs. Example question: Is this character a man? Are they alive? Are they on television? Participants may still answer questions even after guessing their character.

Purpose: This activity enables the mingling of people while having some fun together trying to solve a mystery.

Time: Approximately 20 minutes, depending on the number of participants

Number of participants: Four (4) or more

Materials required: Paper, pens (or markers) and tape

Space: Any space will do

Considerations: If someone has mobility issues and unable to freely move around a room just make sure that other participants include them in the game so that they don’t get left out.



Key word: Ice breaker, team builder

Description: Ask each participant to pick a penny from a jar and then share a cool/special story that reminds them of the year that coin was manufactured. Participants take turns sharing their stories.

Purpose: Allows participants to learn interesting facts about other participants, getting to know each other on a more personal level.

Time: 10 minutes or more

Number of participants: Two or more

Materials required: Pennies, jar

Space: Any space will work

Considerations: Make sure you have pennies with years that represent the age group of your participants.


Share and tell

Key word: Icebreaker, team builder

Description: Ask participants to team-up with a partner and tape a piece of paper to their partner’s back. Staying in pairs, ask the whole group to form two concentric circles: one partner sits on the inside circle while the other sits on the outside, facing each other. For one minute, those sitting on the inside circle share with their partner an obstacle they’ve overcome, a hobby, something they are proud of, etc. Subsequently, the listener is tasked with writing something positive they’ve noticed about the speaker. Next, those sitting in outside circle share a story with their partner sitting in the inside circle. Then, ask those in the outer circle to switch two places to the left (everyone should have a new partner). Alternate as you see fit, ideally so that everyone has a chance talk with different people, rotating the roles of those who share and those who listens. Have the last set of partners remove the paper from each other’s back read the paper (now filled with positive words) to each other. Upon completion, you can ask the group to reflect on (but not share their answers) the following questions: How does it feel to talk about yourself? How often do you truly hear what others are saying about you? How did it feel to read the positive words others wrote? What did you learn about perceptions other people have of you?

Purpose: This activity allows participants to get to know each other. It sparks conversations between strangers and can boost confidence among group members and increase their comfort levels within the group.

Time: Approximately 20 to 30 minutes

Number of Participants: Six or more

Materials required: tape, scrap paper and pens/pencils

Space: Open space is required

Considerations: This game can be adapted to accommodate people with mobility constraints. Anyone who is unable to move easily from their spot in the circle can simply switch roles while remaining in their spot while others move spots.



Key word: Energizer

Description: Randomly spread out the same number of chairs as the number of players. Everyone, with exception of one person, starts the game sitting in a chair, one chair remains empty. The person standing becomes the ‘walker’. The walker’s mission is to sit on an empty chair. The catch is everyone else must try to fill the empty seat before the walker gets there. If the walker succeeds at sitting in an empty chair, the person now standing becomes the new walker, and so forth.

Purpose: This game is about moving around and having fun. It can be an energizer or a way to burn off some extra energy.

Time: As much time as you’d like.

Number of Participants: 6 or more

Materials required: As many chairs as people

Space: Large open space with room to walk and/or run around freely

Considerations: This is a very active game and is not suitable for people with mobility constraints.


Mind mapping

Key word: Activity, planning, reflection, tool

Description: This activity can be completed either in a group setting or individually. Each participant is asked to draw or write, in the middle of the page, one main image, concept or idea. Draw major branches reaching out from that central image, inserting a new idea on each branch. Then, draw sub-branches that reach out from those branches, inserting sub-themes. The ideas can be drawn, written, sketched, etc.

Purpose: It is a creative outlet, allowing participants to see how their ideas connect and stem from other ideas. 1

Time: 10 minutes or more, depending on complexity of Mind Map

Number of participants: Two or more

Materials required: Coloured pens, crayons, pencils or markers, large pieces of paper.

Space: A flat surface, either on a table or chart board is required to write ideas, a white board or chalk board can work too if the Mind Map doesn’t need to be referred to at a later time.

Considerations: None


Gives and gets

Key word: Activity, planning, reflection, tool

Description: This activity should be used at the early set of implementation of a new initiative. Ask participants to take a few moments to write what they will bring to the initiative (gives) on one card and what they hope to get out of the initiative (gets) on another. If participants can’t think of any right away, no problem, participants can share their gives and gets throughout the day. Once they have their ideas, ask participants to post their gives and gets on the wall and for those who are comfortable doing so, to read and reflect on what other people have written. Participants can share their answers with their neighbour.

Once all they are posted be sure to review all the gives and gets so that you can do your best to address each participant’s gets. If you see a get that is unattainable, explain this to the group so that they know why upfront. This last step may not be necessary so early in the process because the group may want to keep creative possibilities open and free from imposed limits.

Purpose: To provide an opportunity for personal goal setting (public/private)

Time: 15-30 minutes or more depending on the number of participants

Number of participants: Two or more

Materials required: Two quote cards per participant, pens/markers, masking tape

Space: Provide a surface to write things on the cards

Considerations: None



Key word: Activity, planning, reflection, tool

Description: This activity should be used when intergenerational teams are formed and meet for the first time. Split the group in two: youth and adults. Ask the group to form two circles (one inside the other) both groups facing the centre of the circle. Use chairs or sit on the ground. The youth sit in the inner circle, and the adults in the outer circle. Ask the youth to speak candidly about issues important to them (ex: what are some of the best experiences you have had working with adults?), while the adults listen to the conversation without judgement. After a predetermined time, the roles are switched. Tip: If the conversation gets carried away or off topic, bring the group back to task by asking prompting questions. It is okay for negative experiences and perspectives to be shared in a safe and positive way; it helps teams to learn from past mistakes.

Purpose: The goal of this activity is to allow youth and adults to see each other in a different light, creating a welcoming environment for both adults and youth. There is often a noticeable shift in mindset from the start of the activity to the end. When adults truly listen to the opinions of young people, they gain a greater understanding of the issues within their community. It’s also a great opportunity for young people to hear from adults and shake any judgment they may have. Of course, the youth in the fishbowl are only a snapshot of the broader community. The adults must also consult more youth before making big programming decisions.

Time: 40 minutes. At least 20 minutes talking time per group, possibly more.

Number of participants: Six or more

Materials required: Markers and large paper may be useful for keeping notes

Space: Large open space free of obstructing objects

Considerations: This activity can bring a lot of unrealized perspectives to the surface as participants openly talk about issues they’re facing. It’s important to have highly skilled facilitators and clinical support available in order to keep the process on track and keep everyone feeling safe and supported throughout the exercise. When setting up a fishbowl, encourage youth to exercise self-care, including opting out or leaving the circle to check in with emotional support staff. Make sure to announce the presence of emotional support persons prior to initiating the activity.


Rights relations

Key word: Activity, planning, reflection, tool

Description: First, tape flip chart paper on the walls and place markers in the middle of the room. Have participants form a circle around them. Ask participants the following questions: “What does it feel like when you are being meaningfully engaged?” “What do you need to feel safe when sharing your perspectives with adults/service providers?” Ask participants to write their responses on the flip chart paper and return to the circle. Then instruct participants to walk around the room silently and take in what everyone has written and return to the circle. Ask participants to share and discuss (popcorn style) what resonates with them most and what themes they see in the other answers.

Purpose: This activity allows youth to determine and voice which principles they need in place before they can be engaged in a meaningful way. Asking young people to self-reflect on which values are most important to them, ensures that they are being engaged on their terms. Keeping the chart paper with these answers written on them during the course of a meeting or gathering is symbolic of the values that are required in an atmosphere where youth are being engaged.

Time: 20- 30 minutes

Number of participants: 4 or more

Materials required: Flip chart paper and markers

Space: Some open space, walls that can have things posted to them

Considerations: Adaptation: If there are participants with mobility issues the facilitator can go around the room and read the answers that were written to the group rather than asking everyone to walk around the room.


Community asset mapping

Key word: Activity, planning, reflection, tool

Description: Work directly with community members to create an inventory of the community's assets. This includes anything from infrastructure, to skills, to resources, to services, associations, etc. Together, as a group, define your project and objectives. Create a map-like visual of what the participants feel is important and valuable in your community. Feel free to start off with two or three guiding questions to help spark the initial discussion. See visual example below taken from Vancouver Youth group tool ‘MAPPED: A youth community mapping toolkit for Vancouver’:2

Purpose: Community asset mapping is a participatory planning tool that engages participants in exploring assets in their physical and social environments. It allows participants to create a tangible output – a map – that can be included in a community planning process. Rather than starting with gaps, problems and deficiencies, community asset mapping values and builds on existing assets and resources.

Time: Two hours

Number of Participants: 2 or more

Materials Required: Flip chart paper, post-its, and markers

Space: Large enough space that flip chart paper can be spread out and many people can contribute to the map at once.

Considerations: None


The circle

Key words: facilitation, hosting techniques

Description: The first and most basic facilitation technique is the circle. Circles are typically used for checking in and checking out. It can also be used when reflecting on a variety of activities. A circle is a place where youth, adults and facilitators are equals. No one is higher or lower and everyone respects the voices of the others. Facilitation of the circle should rotate. There are several components to keep in mind when conducting an activity in a circle, participants should: listen without judgment, maintain confidentiality (whatever is said in the circle stays in the circle), and offer what they can and ask for what they need. Silence can also be part of the conversation.

Purpose: The circle can be used for group discussions, brainstorming, sharing stories and a wide variety of games and activities.

Time: Dependent on the activity

Number of participants: 3 or more

Materials required:

  • Chairs arranged in a circle (or a floor)
  • Object to place at the center of the circle to bring focus. It can be flowers, a poster stating the intention or purpose of the gathering, or any other object that has meaning.
  • Talking piece
  • Chime, bell or other instrument to call everyone to attention
  • Materials for collecting take-away messages from conversations (papers, pens, markers)


Space: An open space to form an even circle in which there are no large objects obstructing anyone’s view of others.

Considerations: It’s best to sit or stand on the circumference of the circle, this way you can see everyone at once and they can see you. Always allow for people to seat themselves how they feel most comfortable, have chairs available for those who are not comfortable sitting on the ground.



Key words: facilitation, hosting techniques

Description: World café is a method for creating a dynamic network of collaborative dialogue around questions that matter in real life situations.3 The general flow of a World café goes like this:

  • Seat four to five people at café-style tables or in clusters
  • Start with the first of three or more 20-minute rounds of conversation for the small group seated around a table. At the end of the twenty minutes, each member of the group moves to a different new table. 
  • Each round is prefaced with a question. The same questions can be used for more than one round, and they can build upon each other to focus the conversation or guide its direction.
  • After the small group discussions (and/or in between rounds, as needed), information should be collected. One person from each table is identified to share some highlights of the conversation they were having at their table.

Purpose: The purpose of a World café is to allow for many conversations, on the same topic, to happen at once with smaller groups of people. This allows for everyone to share their views with many people and influence the views of many people during the course of their conversations. World café style discussions are great for encouraging a wide variety of ideas and perspectives to be shared with a large group of people. Recurring ideas and themes become apparent. World café is an awesome opportunity for people to share and transfer knowledge and get inspired to initiate plans.

Time: 60 to 90 minutes or longer depending on number of rounds

Number of participants: 9 or more. Minimum of 3 tables, hosting at least 3 participants

Materials required: Small tables preferably round, if possible with tablecloths, chairs for participants and presenters, flip chart paper and markers

Space: A space large enough to accommodate all participants, tables and chairs

Considerations: Inform participants with mobility issues that they are welcome to remain in their seat rather than switch from table to table after each round or provide support to help them move from table to table.


Case café

Key words: facilitation, hosting techniques

A Case café is like a World café with two major differences. First, the table hosts or facilitators, the person who will facilitate the discussion, are pre-determined. Second, each round is focused on learning about a particular topic, instead of discussing a question. The general flow of a Case café goes like this:

  • Each facilitator chooses a model or best practice to teach and will set up their station at a table
  • Share with participants which table will be discussing which topic. They are invited to go to a table that interests them (approximately four or five people per table is ideal)
  • The facilitator starts with a five-minute introduction about the topic followed by a 10-15 minute discussion with all participants
  • At the end of the conversation, the facilitator remains at the table and participants rotate from table to table, following the same format every time.
  • After three conversations are finished, spend time in circle or individually reflecting on what was learned.

Purpose: The purpose of a Case café is to learn by engaging in diverse conversations. It is designed more specifically to learn about a particular topic from someone who has special insight into this topic.

Time: 60 to 90 minutes or longer depending on number of rounds

Number of participants: At least 9 participants

Materials required: Small tables preferably round, if possible with tablecloths, chairs for participants and presenters, flip chart paper and markers

Space: A space large enough to accommodate all participants, tables and chairs

Considerations: Inform participants with mobility issues that they are welcome to remain in their seat rather than switch from table to table after each round or provide support to help them move from table to table.


Pro-action café

Key words: facilitation, hosting techniques

Invite participants to stand up and suggest discussion topics for the group. Write it down on the agenda and correspond it with a specific table number. Once you have a full agenda, split the group up, so that individuals are sitting at different tables. There are three rounds of our 20 minutes during which each table is assigned a different topic to address. Although the topics may vary, the questions asked at the tables remain the same. After every round, the groups rotate from table to table.

  • Round 1: What is the mission behind the topic brought up by the host? Try to go beyond the surface of this topic.
  • Round 2: What is missing? Now that the topic has been refined, try to widen the horizon and cover areas that have not yet been discussed.
  • Round 3: What are the next steps?

Finally, meet in a circle and invite the callers from each table to debrief on the process and discussion.

Purpose: Pro-Action café is used to spark creative and action-oriented conversation where participants help to clarify project ideas brought forward by individuals in the group. It is a blend of World café and Open space technology.

Time: Minimum time required: 1.5 – 2.5 hours

Number of participants: 10 and up

Materials and set-up (Space): Ideally create a large circle in one part of the room and enough café tables with four chairs in another part (if the size of the room does not allow this, then participants will move the tables and chairs themselves as soon as the agenda is created).

Dress the tables with flipchart paper, coloured pens and markers as basic café set up.

Prepare the matrix for the agenda setting of the session with the right amount of sessions according to the number of participants, callers and contributors divided by four.

Considerations: Make sure anyone with mobility issues has support in order to move from table to table, if required.


Open space technology

Key words: facilitation, hosting techniques

Description: Open space technology is a process designed by Harrison Owen that allows leadership and the agenda structure to emerge from the participants.4 This approach is known for its initial lack of agenda. Participants create the agenda at the beginning of the meeting. You will require one host, to announce the concept and spark the conversation. The general flow of an Open space meeting goes like this:

  • Place chairs in a large circle
  • Invite participants to write down their discussion ideas on post-in notes or flip charts bulletin board style. These ideas will make-up the agenda. Therefore, they should include a time and a location. The person who suggestion the discussion point, should also take notes during eventual meeting.
  • These suggestions can be compiled into document that is distributed physically or electronically to all participants.
  • Ask the larger group to break-out into smaller groups to discuss
  • After the meetings, take the time collect the data discussed in the group meetings.

Purpose: The Open space technology technique is very useful for working off of the knowledge of the people who are in the room. Since the agenda and topics are chosen based on the interest of the people present there is greater potential for a wide variety of interesting and unique conversations. This creates a wonderful possibility for knowledge exchange as well as networking amongst participants.

Minimum time required: 90 minutes

Number of participants: 10 and up

Materials required: Circle of chairs for participants, letters or numbers around the room to indicate meeting locations, a blank wall that will become the agenda, paper on which to write session topics/questions, markers, paper to collect data.

Space: A large space with chairs is required. Tables can be helpful if people want to take notes

Considerations: Make sure anyone with mobility issues has support in order to move from place to place, if required.


Head, heart, feet, spirit

Key words: facilitation, hosting techniques, reflection

Description: This reflective technique should take place after an activity. Invite participants to express their reflections in each of the four areas, whether with words, an image, verbal or retrospective:

  • Head: What I have learned today?
  • Heart: How do I feel about today?
  • Feet: What will I do with what I’ve learned today?
  • Spirit: I did I connect with today?

Purpose: Head, heart, feet, spirit is a useful model for reflecting (harvesting) one’s learning.5

Minimum time required: 15 minutes and up depending on the number of participants

Number of participants: Any, this activity can even be done on an individual level

Materials required: Paper and writing tools can be provided but they are not always necessary.

Space: Any

Considerations: None


Human graphing technique

Key word: evaluation

Description: Human graphing is a more physically active way of responding to questions on a survey/questionnaire. Placing different scales, (strongly disagree to strongly agree) on either end of the room, respondents can move to different positions to indicate their response to a question. For each question, co-evaluators can take note of numbers of respondents at each answer location. While this is not an anonymous way to respond to questions, it allows quick and visible results and lends itself to in the moment group interpretation.

Purpose: Provides are more interactive and creative way of retrieving survey results.

Minimum time required: 20 minutes

Number of participants: Six or more

Materials required: Survey questions

Space: None

Considerations: None


Drawing and collage

Key word: evaluation

Description: Together with the group, identify programming areas you’d like to evaluate. Using art supplies, ask the group to draw, glue, create a visual representation of their experience in the youth engagement activity/initiative. This can be a limited time as part of a focus group or session, or a longer project so that participants can continually add to their image over the course of the program. When participants are ready to share their images, ask some guiding questions for discussion. Here are a few guiding questions to get you started:

  • How does your image feel to you?
  • Did you learn anything while you were creating your image?
  • What does your image say about your experience/perspective of the program?
  • In what ways are your images similar? Different?
  • What are key themes that came up in each image? What are themes you see across the images?
  • What were the positives and negatives?

Purpose: Provides are more interactive and creative way of retrieving survey results.

Minimum time required: 20-60 minutes

Number of participants: Any number of participants

Materials required: Old magazines, newspapers, glues, colouring pencils, markers, etc.

Space: Any space

Considerations: None



Key word: evaluation

Description: Photovoice is a qualitative method that involves participants in data collection by having them photograph their everyday realities, participating in group discussions about the photographs and communicating the results to people who can help make change.

Purpose: Provides are more interactive and creative way of retrieving survey results.

Minimum time required: Tailor to meet your needs

Number of participants: Three or more

Materials required: cell phones, smart phone or camera

Space: Any

Considerations: A projector could be used to share the photos collected on a larger screen.



Key word: evaluation

Description: Together with the group, develop some evaluation questions to explore by photo. For example, what do safer spaces look like? Questions about community assets and service gaps (e.g., what are our mental health needs, services, and gaps?). Participants can do several rounds of photography during the program. The group can share their photos and discuss using some guiding questions, using the SHOWED technique 6:

  • What do we See here?
  • What’s really Happening here?
  • How does this related to Our lives?
  • Why does this problem, concern, or strength Exist?
  • What can we Do about it?

Ask participants to hare stories about what the photograph means and then code these stories into issues, themes or theories. Don’t forget to get written consent from people before taking their photograph, and also before sharing the image once it has been produced

Purpose: Provides are more interactive and creative way of retrieving survey results.

Minimum time required: Indefinite

Number of participants: One facilitator and one interviewee

Materials required: Printed photos of people who have recently experienced the program you are evaluating.

Space: Any

Considerations: Make sure that you have consent to use the photos, before sharing them with others.



Key word: evaluation

Description: Theatre performance as an evaluation tool involves acting out scenarios and exploring concepts, experiences, feelings, roles and characteristics of a program/initiative. Participants use their bodies and emotions to create something new, and in doing so they often gain a new understanding of their context. Theatre performance is particularly useful to exaggerate important details for analysis. Use your interview questions as to prompt ideas for their performances. Ask the group If this program were a movie 7:

  • What is the title?
  • What is the genre (e.g., science fiction, soap opera, comedy, drama, horror, etc.)?
  • Who would the characters be and who would play them (stars)?
  • Act out a 1-2 minute scenario or “movie trailer”
  • What aspects of the performance were realistic/fictional?
  • How will understanding this scene help address our evaluation questions?

Performing pivotal moments can illustrate the high and low points of the program. Some prompts include:

  • Scenario of the greatest challenge and the greatest achievement in the program
  • Scenario of the most important experience in the program
  • The best and the worst moments in the program

Purpose: Provides are more interactive and creative way of retrieving survey results.

Minimum time required: 20 min

Number of participants: Six or more

Materials required: None

Space: Fairly large space, to allow the group to move around.

Considerations: Not everyone is comfortable sharing ideas/performing in front of a group. This also means that some survey results are no longer anonymous.

  • 1. Buzan & Buzan 2006
  • 2. Mapped, A Youth Community Mapping Toolkit for Vancouver. 2009. Retrieved August 2015 from:
  • 3. Brown, J. & Brown, J., Isaacs, D., and the World Café Community (2005). The World Café: Shaping Our Futures Through Conversations That Matter. San Francisco: Berrett-Keohler Publishers.
  • 4. Owen, H. (2008). Open Space Technology: A User’s Guide (3rd Ed). San Francisco: Berrett-Kohler Publishers Inc.
  • 5. Reeler, D., Van Blerk, R., Taylor, J., Paulsen, D., & Soal, S. ( 2009). Barefoot Guide to Working with Organisations and Social Change. Johannesburg, South Africa: Community Development Resource Association.
  • 6. Wang, 1999
  • 7. Sabo Flores, 2008