Glossary

Confused with some of the terminology? Explore the glossary for more information.

Désorienté par la terminologie? Consultez le glossaire pour en savoir plus.

A

Adult ally
A trusted adult that supports, advocates for and works collaboratively with youth.
Anti-oppressive practice (AOP)
A way of working that recognizes existing social inequalities and power imbalances and reduces them through meaningful engagement and collaboration with children, youth, families and service providers in all levels of decision-making.
Approach
The philosophical grounding for the way you will carry out a project. This includes the set of values that guide your activities.
Authentic relationships
Relationships built on respect and trust that involve an equal power balance between youth and adults who work as a collective to achieve common goals.

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B

Barriers
Conditions that prevent someone from actively participating in a part of their life. These can include but are not limited to: language, geography, living situations, stigma, other commitments like school or work and more.
Best practices
The provision of care utilizing evidence-based decision-making and continuous quality improvement regarding what is effective (Alberta Mental Health Board, 2005).

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C

Champion
Individuals in an organization who dedicate themselves to supporting, marketing and driving through an implementation, and overcoming indifference or resistance that the intervention may provoke in an organization (Damschroder et al., 2009).
Change agent
An individual who supports the implementation of a change. They must be representative of the user population, understand the reasoning behind the change and help to communicate the excitement, possibilities and details of the change to others within the organization.
Clinical safety
Taking measures to ensure the safety of the youth who are being engage (e.g. having someone who is trained in counselling to help youth if they become distressed or triggered).
Clinical support
When working with youth, especially youth with lived experience, organizations ensure that young people have access to staff, peers or other support systems that are trained to provide basic mental health support.
Coaching
Personal observation, instruction and feedback or other forms of training on the job (Fixen et al., 2005).
Collaboration
Working together to achieve a goal that one entity cannot accomplish alone. Collaborative efforts can ensure a comprehensive approach to achieving a shared and mutually beneficial goal.
Communications plan
A policy-driven approach to providing stakeholders with information about a project. (Rouse, M. (2015, May). What is communication plan. WhatIs. Retrieved from http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/communication-plan). This is a step by step process to ensure that the intended message is received, understood and acted upon by the recipient. It involves: (1) determining the objectives, (2) choosing the audience and (3) selecting appropriate channel(s) to reach them. (Business Dictionary. (n.d). Communications planning. Retrieved from http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/communications-planning.html)
Communities of practice
Groups of people who share a passion, concern or set of problems related to a specific topic. They interact regularly in order to deepen their knowledge and expertise and learn how to do things better.
Critical reflective practice
Being able to have honest individual and group reflection on power, privilege and identity, and make links to system factors that influence oneself and the community (e.g. poverty, discrimination or accessibility). A practice that helps identify the multiple systems that creates barriers to meaningful engagement.
Culture
A set of patterns that are used to guide our behaviours, thoughts, artifacts, ceremonies, speech, values, ethics and many other elements of our lives.

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D

Diversity
The variety of differences among people. This includes language, education, cultural traditions and work experiences among many others. There are differences between and within cultures around the world.
Dominant groups
Certain identities are more accepted, valued, preferred and desired in society. These identities are reflected in the dominant groups of people in society. For example, when we think about gender identity in Canada, the male gender is the dominant group.

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E

Engaged youth
Youth playing an active role in program planning and decision-making. They can include clients, former consumers of service or those who express a genuine interest in the issues.
Ethics
Questions and opinions about whether what the researcher is doing or trying to do, and how, are ethically right. Some of these issues are confidentiality, human rights and fair reporting (Rittenhouse, Campbell & Daltro, 2002).
Evaluation (Outcome evaluation)
Assesses the extent to which a program has been successful in terms of achieving the goals and results.
Evidence-informed practice
Evidence-informed practice combines the best available research with the experience and judgment of practitioners, children, youth and families to deliver measurable benefits.
Experiential education
An instructional approach based on the idea that ideal learning occurs through experience. Learning tasks require the active participation of the student in hands-on opportunities and must connect content to the student’s life. Experiential education combines active learning with concrete experiences, abstract concepts, and reflection in an effort to engage all learning styles. (Coffey, H. (n.d). Experiential education. K-12 Teaching and Learning from the UNC School of Education. Learn NC. Retrieved from http://www.learnnc.org/lp/pages/4967)

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F

Family engagement
An active partnership between families and service providers. For service providers, this means listening to what families think, engaging them in two-way communication and involving them as essential allies in decision making so that their involvement is meaningful and has a purpose. Effective family engagement requires the service provider to develop a relationship-building process focused on listening.

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G

Generational issues (Generational gap)
Misunderstandings or lack of communication brought on by the differences in customs, attitudes and beliefs between any two generations, especially between youth and adults. (Dictionary.com. (n.d.). Generation gap. Retrieved from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/generation+gap)
Gives and gets
The knowledge, skills and qualities group members bring to an experience and what they hope to get in return.
Governance
At its core, governance is about responsible decision-making and the system that supports and legitimizes it. Within this definition, governing bodies, or boards of directors, have three primary roles: 1. to establish policies, 2. to make significant and strategic decisions and 3. to oversee an agency or organization’s activities. (The Centre of Excellence for Child and Youth Mental Health. (2014). Governance for agencies in Ontario’s transitioning child and youth mental health sector. Retrieved from http://www.excellenceforchildandyouth.ca/sites/default/files/policy_governance_cymh.pdf)

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H

Health equity
Creating equal access and opportunities for good health for all and reducing avoidable and unjust differences in health among population groups (World Health Organization, n.d.).
Heatlh inequity
Differences in health that are unjust, avoidable and unnecessary. For example, health outcomes of certain populations are lower due to a variety factors often related to poverty, discrimination and exclusion groups (World Health Organization, n.d.).
Honorarium
A meaningful reward given to a youth as a way of recognizing their time and expertise. Some examples include food, gift cars, volunteer hours or professional references.

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I

Icebreaker
One or multiple activities usually carried out at the beginning of a group gathering to welcome participants and warm up conversation among them.
Implementation (Implementing)
The process of putting a defined practice or program into practical effect to pursue to a conclusion. (Fixsen et al. (2005). Glossary. Online EIP Implementation Module. The Ontario Centre of Excellence for Child and Youth Mental Health. Retrieved from http://www.excellenceforchildandyouth.ca/sites/default/files/olm/implementation/4/player.html)
Implementation team
A number of representatives of the organization that assist in carrying out the implementation plan and move the selected practice or program through the stages of implementation.
Indicators
What you can observe (see, hear or read) that will tell you that an outcome has been achieved. Some examples include participation rates, wait times or feedback from program participation.
Intersectionality
A way to understand the multiple forms of oppression (e.g. racism, sexism, homophobia) and how they intersect in one person’s experience. For instance, a youth who identifies as female African Canadian heterosexual and as having a disability may experience oppression related to her ethnicity, gender and disability, while also experiencing privilege related to her sexual orientation.

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J

Joint decision-making
Decision-making that involves two or more people.

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K

Knowledge mobilization (KMb)
The meaningful use of evidence and expertise to align research, policy and practice and improve outcomes for children, youth and families.

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L

Leadership
A set of people and processes that create the organization in the first place or adapt them to significantly changing circumstances. They define what the future should look like, align people with that vision and inspire them to make it happen while acknowledging possible barriers.

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M

Marginalized groups
Individuals or groups of people who are systematically excluded from meaningful participation in economic, social, political, cultural and other forms of human activity in their communities. As a result, they are denied the opportunity to fulfill themselves as human beings. People who identify outside of the dominant groups (e.g. white, heterosexual, able-bodied) are often marginalized.
Meaningful engagement
Youth are meaningfully engaged when they are involved in activities that they believe to have purpose, when they show commitment to what they are doing and they demonstrate gained knowledge of the activity.
Mental health
The capacity to feel, think and act in ways that enhance one’s ability to enjoy life and deal with challenges.
Mental health promotion
Initiatives that are strengths-based and aim to reduce stigma, strengthen protective factors, reduce risk factors and help all or specific groups of young people access help and resources. Youth and stakeholders from across sectors, such as schools, are active partners in designing, planning and carrying out these initiatives (CAMH, 2014).
Mobilization of research (see Knowledge mobilization)
Relates to the flow of knowledge and information among multiple individuals and groups, leading to intellectual, social and economic benefits. (University of Guelph. (n.d). Defining our terms: What is “Community Engagement?” Institute for community engaged scholarship. Retrieved from http://www.theresearchshop.ca/defining-our-terms)

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N

Natural supports
Natural supports are the relationships that occur in everyday life. Formal supports usually involve some form of payment for services and may include relationships with service providers – such as counselors, therapists, line staff and care managers. In contrast, natural supports usually involve relationships with family members, friends, co-workers, neighbors and acquaintances, and are of a reciprocal (give-and-take) nature. Such supports help a person to develop a sense of social belonging, dignity and self-esteem. (The UPenn Collaborative on Community Integration. (n.d) Community Integration Tools: Natural Supports. Retrieved from http://tucollaborative.org/pdfs/Toolkits_Monographs_Guidebooks/relationships_family_friends_intimacy/Natural_Supports.pdf)

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O

Ontario Centre of Excellence for Child and Youth Mental Health
The Centre strives to strengthen front-line service outcomes by helping Ontario child and youth mental health agencies use evidence to provide the best possible care. We provide a range of collaborative tools, services, programs and training that support individuals and organizations as they seek, use and share knowledge to promote the best possible mental health and well-being for all children and youth.
Oppression
When people who are in positions of power control people with less power in hurtful, unfair ways. This can occur historically and culturally and at individual or institutional levels. Systems of oppression include institutionalized racism, homophobia, transphobia, classism, ableism, etc.
Outcome
Short-term and medium-term effect of an intervention’s outputs, such as change in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, behaviours (UNAIDS, n.d.).
Outcome (summative) evaluations
A type of evaluation that assesses the extent to which a program has been successful in achieving the goals and results which helps inform decisions about future programming.

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P

Participatory action research
A type of research that combines two different approaches: participatory research and action research. Participatory research encourages equal involvement from both researchers and participants in the research process. Action research uses findings to reveal strategies that can address community issues. Community needs are evaluated and action is taken with the purpose of social change through the development of services and organizations. (Watters, J. Comeau, S. & Restall, G. (2010). Participatory Action REsearch : An educational Tool for citizen-users of community mental health services. Retrieved from http://umanitoba.ca/rehabsciences/media/par_manual.pdf)
Participatory evaluation
An approach that engages young people in evaluating the programs, organizations and systems designed to serve them. There are different models of participatory evaluation. Some are completely driven by youth, while others are conducted in partnership with adults. (ACT for Youth Centre of Excellence. (2015). Youth Participatory Evaluation. Retrieved from: http://www.actforyouth.net/youth_development/evaluation/evaluators/)
Partnerships (Organizational)
A formal inter-organizational relationship between two or more parties where common goals are defined, commitments are made and risks and rewards are shared between both parties
Peer support
A supportive relationship between people who have lived experience in common. There are various types of peer support that fall along a spectrum ranging from informal support to formal peer support within a structures organizational setting. Peer support within a clinical setting can involve program where peer support workers offer the opportunity for a supportive, empowering relationship. (Mental Health Commission of Canada. (2015). Peer Support. Retrieved from: http://www.mentalhealthcommission.ca/English/issues/peer-support)
Place
A physical environment or site. (Griffin, S. (2011). The spatial environments of street-involved youth: Can the streets be a therapeutic milieu? 16-25.)
Positive youth development
A strength-based approach focused on supporting youth to thrive in adolescence and successfully transition into adulthood. Positive youth development initiatives include elements such as social connection, living skills, social inclusion, health and physical literacy, citizenship and contribution, academic success and employability. (Youthrive. (n.d.). Glossary: Positive Youth Development. Retrieved from http://www.youthrive.ca/make-links/glossary)
Power
People’s ability to work towards their own goals and make changes in their own lives. Dominant groups have social power (e.g. adults have power over youth). This means they can make decisions about how resources are distributed and control who benefits from them (Youth Environmental Network, n.d.).
Privilege
Social power accorded to all members of a dominant group and is embedded in our formal and informal institutions (e.g. white privilege, male privilege etc.). In most cases, privilege is unearned (Colours of Resistance, n.d.).
Program evaluation
A systematic collection and analysis of information in order to see whether a program or a project is doing what it set out to do. It lets programs and organizations know how they’re doing and helps identify changes that need to be made along the way (Whitman & Wadud, 2013).
Program logic model
A visual diagram (e.g., a flow chart) depicting the various components of a program and illustrates how these components are congruently linked together in order to achieve the intended outcomes (Rittenhouse et. al, 2002).
Protective factors
Factors that encourage mental health and improve resilience to mental health challenges.
Psychosocial
Relating to the interrelation of social factors and individual thought and behaviour: the psychosocial care of patients (Oxford Dictionaries. (n.d.). Psychosocial. Retrieved from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/psychosocial)

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R

Readiness for change
The different ways that individuals, organizations and communities vary in their interest, willingness and ability to acquire and adopt new knowledge and behaviours. (Barwick et al., 2005).
Resilience
The ability to adapt and successfully cope with adversity. Adversities can range from a single incident (e.g. car accident) to repeated exposure (e.g. continued abuse or neglect). Relationships are vital to building resilience.
Risk factors
Factors that put young people at a greater risk for mental health challenges.

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S

Safe(r) space
A safe(r) space is a supportive, non-threatening environment that encourages open-mindedness, respect, a willingness to learn from others, as well as physical and mental safety. It is a space that is critical of the power structures that affect our everyday lives, and where power dynamics, backgrounds, and the effects of our behavior on others are prioritized. Everyone who enters a safe(r) space has a responsibility to uphold the values of the space. (Coalition for Safer Spaces. (2010). What are, and why support, ‘safer’ space. Retrieved from https://saferspacesnyc.wordpress.com/)
Social constructs
A social mechanism, phenomenon, or category created and developed by society. A perception of an individual, group, or idea that is 'constructed' through cultural or social practice. (Dictionary.com's 21st Century Lexicon. (n.d.). Social construct. Retrieved from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/social+construct)
Social identities
Social identity theory compares how behavior and identity vary based on people's fluid concepts of themselves as either individuals or as members of groups. (Chegg.com. (n.d.) Definition of Social Identity. Retrieved from http://www.chegg.com/homework-help/definitions/social-identity-49) A major element of a person’s social identity is their sense of who they are based on their group membership(s). (McLeod, S. (2008). Social Identity Theory. Retrieved September 15, 2015, from SimplyPsychology.org website: http://www.simplypsychology.org/social-identity-theory.html)
Space
An abstract form of environment that is socially constructed by how people interact within their physical environment (place). (Griffin, S. (2011). The spatial environments of street-involved youth: Can the streets be a therapeutic milieu? 16-25.)
Stigma (of mental illness)
Three out of four people with a mental illness report that they have experienced stigma. When a person is labelled by their illness they are seen as part of a stereotyped group. Negative attitudes create prejudice which leads to negative actions and discrimination. (Government of Western Australia Mental Health Commission. (n.d.) What is stigma? Retrieved from http://www.mentalhealth.wa.gov.au/mental_illness_and_health/mh_stigma.aspx) The experience of stigma can take many forms and can come from a number of sources such as individuals, groups, or institutions. (The Centre of Excellence for Child and Youth Mental Health. (n.d.). Glossary of Terms. Mental Health Stigma. Retrieved from http://www.excellenceforchildandyouth.ca/sites/default/files/mhlw_glossary.pdf)
Structural violence
Structural violence refers to systematic ways in which social structures harm or otherwise disadvantage individuals. Structural violence is subtle, often invisible, and often has no one specific person who can (or will) be held responsible (in contrast to behavioral violence). (Burtle, A. (2013). Structural Violence: Inequality and the harm it causes. Retrieved from http://www.structuralviolence.org/structural-violence/)
Succession planning
Succession planning is a process whereby an organization ensures that employees are recruited and developed to fill each key role within the company. Through a succession planning process, employees are recruited, and given opportunities to develop their knowledge, skills and abilities. This prepares them for advancement or promotion into ever more challenging roles. Heathfield, S. (n.d.). Succession Planning. Retrieved from http://humanresources.about.com/od/glossarys/g/successionplan.htm)
Systemic issues
System-wide issues affecting or relating to a group or system (such as a body, economy, or market) as a whole, instead of its individual members or parts. Racism is not an attitude that a few select people have without effecting society, but is a systemic problem that effects many areas of society. Business (Dictionary.com. (n.d.) Systemic. Retrieved from http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/systemic.html)

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T

Tokenizing
Young people are used inconsequentially by adults to reinforce the perception that youth are involved but youth are not given the opportunity to contribute in meaningful ways. (Fletcher, A. (2008). Ladder of Youth Voice. The Free Child Project. Retrieved from http://www.freechild.org/ladder.htm)
Trigger warning
A statement at the start of a piece of writing, video, etc. alerting the reader or viewer to the fact that it contains potentially distressing material: (Oxford Dictionaries.com. (n.d.) Trigger Warning. Retrieved from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/trigger-warning.)

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Y

Youth engagement
To empower all young people as valuable partners in addressing and making decisions about issues that affect them personally and/or that they believe to be important.
Youth-adult partnerships (YAPs)
A Youth-Adult Partnership is an intentional relationship between young people and adults that relies on adults acknowledging and empowering the ability, perspectives, ideas and knowledge of young people throughout the relationship. (Fletcher, A. (2008). Youth Adult Partnerships. The Free Child project. Retrieved from http://www.freechild.org/yapartnerships.htm)

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